Causes of vision loss

The loss of vision may occur suddenly or gradually, and it may be complete or partial, so what are the causes of vision loss? This article contains the solution.

Causes of vision loss

The definition of the word blindness or blindness may differ from one place to another, but the legal definition of blindness is the case in which the patient's visual acuity is less than or equal to 20/200, so what are the causes of blindness? The following sentences provide the solution:

Causes of vision loss

Depending on the specifics of each case, different factors can cause blindness. The causes of total blindness and partial blindness are different from those of sudden blindness and gradual blindness, respectively. Among the causes of blindness are the following:

1. Cataracts

One of the most prevalent causes of vision loss worldwide, cataracts are an opacity or clouding of the eye's lens. They are particularly common in elderly individuals with diabetes.

Age-related cataracts account for the majority of cases, but other factors also play a role, the most significant of which are diabetes, long-term steroid use, and sun or ionising radiation exposure.

Cataract symptoms include the following:

  • Blurred vision.
  • seeing challenges at night or in dim lighting.
  • Decreased lighting intensity.
  • Seeing halos around light.

2. Macular Degeneration

The condition known as macular degeneration is characterised by damage to the macula, a particular region of the retina, which results in a central scotoma.

The most frequent cause of partial vision loss in people over 65 is this disease, which has a close relationship to age.

This condition comes in two different forms: dry degeneration and wet degeneration. Wet degeneration is a more serious and more advanced condition than dry degeneration, and it causes faster vision loss.

3. Diabetic retinopathy

A complication of diabetes is diabetic retinopathy, a microscopic vascular defect in the retina. Loss of vision due to this condition's potential to affect the visual system. Diabetic retinopathy is one of the most common causes of vision loss in patients with diabetes.

Retinopathy may be asymptomatic, but it can also cause a number of symptoms, such as:

  • Blurred or blurred vision.
  • black spots or dots that appear in your field of vision.
  • Double vision at night.

4. Glaucoma

Glaucoma develops as a result of fluid buildup in the eyes and high intraocular pressure, which can harm the optic nerve and cause a gradual loss of vision.

Glaucoma is divided into two main categories: open-angle glaucoma and closed-angle glaucoma. Glaucoma is initially asymptomatic, but it gradually impairs peripheral vision.

5. Optic neuritis

Optic neuritis is a condition that frequently indicates multiple sclerosis and results in severe and temporary vision loss.

Other factors, such as viral infection, systemic lupus erythematosus, and others, can also result in optic neuritis.

6. Retinal detachment

When the retina separates from the retinal pigment epithelium, this is known as retinal detachment. The reasons for retinal detachment vary, but diabetes and eye injury are the main causes.

Retinal detachment symptoms can differ from patient to patient and include the following:

  • The patient experiences light flashes and floaters in his field of vision.
  • blurry vision
  • the presence of a bottom-to-top black shadow in the patient's field of vision.

7. Other reasons

There are additional reasons for vision loss, such as:

  • silicosis (trachoma).
  • Retinitis pigmentosa.
  • Retinal artery occlusion.
  • Retinopathy of prematurity.

Diagnosis of vision loss

The main components of determining the cause of vision loss are the patient's clinical examination and medical history.

Visual acuity, visual field, extraocular muscles, pupil, intraocular pressure, fundoscopy, optical tomography, angiography, and genetics testing are all included in the clinical examination.

Vision loss treatment

The causes of vision loss affect how it is treated. However, there are rehabilitation services available for those who are blind or partially sighted. Treatment of the disease that causes vision loss may help restore vision or part of it. This is to preserve what is left of their ability to see.

A multidisciplinary team of medical professionals, low vision therapists, occupational rehabilitation experts, social workers, and other rehabilitation experts for the visually impaired offer this service.

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