Non-small cell lung cancer

What is lung cancer with non-small cells? What stages are there? How is it diagnosed and treated? This article contains the solution.

Non-small cell lung cancer

Continue reading to learn more about non-small cell lung cancer and the key details that pertain to it:

What is non-small cell lung cancer?

Unusual cell formation leads to non-small cell lung cancer. Then it spreads through the lung tissue, one of the two main types of lung cancer and the other type is small cell lung cancer.

It is important to note that this type is the most typical, particularly among smokers.

Types of non-small cell lung cancer

The three primary forms of non-small cell lung cancer are as follows:

  • Adenocarcinoma

This type, which is the most prevalent, develops in the mucus-producing cells, typically in the outer region of the lung.

  • Squamous cell carcinoma

The primary airways in the middle of the lungs are frequently affected by this type of lung cancer, which develops in the cells lining the airways.

  • lung cancer with many cells

It is the least frequent type, typically begins in the middle of the lungs, and is challenging to treat due to how quickly it spreads and grows.

Stages of non-small cell lung cancer

Determining the stage of lung cancer helps in selecting the most appropriate treatment methods. The following are the non-small cell cancer stages:

  • Cancer cells can be found in pulmonary fluid or sputum during the occult stage.
  • Stage 0: The lining of the airways contains cancer cells.
  • Stage 1: One of the lungs contains a small tumour, but it has not yet spread to the lymph nodes.
  • Stage 2: Either the tumour has spread to the lymph nodes or there is a larger tumour in one of the lungs.
  • Stage III: Lymph nodes and nearby organs are affected by the cancer.
  • Stage IV: Cancer has spread to both lungs and the fluid around them. Additionally, it might get to distant organs like the liver and brain.

Symptoms of non-small cell lung cancer

Sometimes no symptoms of lung cancer may appear, and then it is discovered by chance during x-rays or during some routine examinations. The following are signs of this type of lung cancer:

  • chest pain
  • a persistent cough that worsens over time despite treatment.
  • Difficulty breathing.
  • Wheezing.
  • spat out blood.
  • hoarseness _
  • Significant weight loss without dieting.
  • exhaustion .
  • difficulty swallowing
  • swelling of the face or of the neck's veins.

Causes of non-small cell lung cancer

The exact cause of this type of lung cancer is still unknown, but there are some factors that may increase the risk of infection, which include the following:

  • radon.
  • asbestos.
  • metal dust.
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
  • pulmonary fibrosis
  • air pollution.
  • gasoline and diesel exhaust.
  • Products containing chloride and formaldehyde.
  • breast or chest radiation therapy.
  • AIDS .
  • Several substances, including vinyl chloride, beryllium, and uranium.

Diagnostic methods for non-small cell lung cancer

The doctor will examine you physically and inquire about your symptoms. If lung cancer is suspected, some tests will be performed, which include the following:

  • such as blood or urine tests, are performed in laboratories.
  • Chest x-ray.
  • Computed tomography.
  • biopsy.
  • thoracentesis;
  • Examination of sputum cells.
  • Bronchoscopy.
  • Thoracoscopy.

Non-small cell lung cancer treatment

Treatment depends on the type and location of cancer, and doctors focus on making the patient feel better and supporting him psychologically. The most significant treatments that can be used are as follows:

1. Surgery

In the early stages, surgery is used, and the lung may be removed entirely or partially.

Using a heated probe or needle, freezing, or both, can also kill cancer cells.

2. Radiotherapy

Radiation therapy is used to eradicate cancer cells that were not surgically removed.

It is possible to use a specialised tool or radioactive material inside or close to the cancerous tumour.

3. Targeted therapy

Antibodies and medications are used to stop the development and spread of cancer cells.

This approach has the benefit of only targeting cancer cells, which leaves healthy cells unaffected.

4. Photodynamic therapy

When a specific drug that has been absorbed by the cancerous tumour is activated with the help of a special laser light without harming healthy cells.

5. Clinical trials

Participating in clinical trials for cancer medications may be used as treatment in advanced stages.

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