Parkinson's disease: Your comprehensive guide

There is a type of Parkinson's disease called juvenile Parkinson's disease; read more about it in this article. Parkinson's disease is one of the neurological conditions linked to ageing.

Juvenile Parkinson's disease: Your comprehensive guide

A subtype of Parkinson's disease, juvenile Parkinson's disease affects people between the ages of 21 and 40.

Even though the symptoms of juvenile Parkinson's disease and generalised Parkinson's disease may be similar, there are some differences between them in terms of when symptoms first appear.

Symptoms of juvenile Parkinson's disease

The following are some of the symptoms:

1. Motor symptoms

One of the distinctive and obvious signs of Parkinson's disease in general is the presence of motor symptoms, which include:

  • Resting tremor.
  • Slowed movement (Bradykinesia).
  • Muscle stiffness.
  • Balance disorders.
  • Muscular relaxation (Dystonia).

2. Non-motor symptoms

Since non-motor symptoms may manifest first, juvenile Parkinson's disease may be distinguished by these symptoms:

  • loss of sense of smell
  • constipation .
  • Rapid eye movement behavior disorder.
  • mood disorders like anxiety or depression.
  • Sleep problems.
  • Bladder problems.
  • Exhaustion and fatigue.
  • Increased saliva production.
  • Vision problems.

Causes of juvenile Parkinson's disease

Infections can have a variety of causes and risk factors, some of which are genetic, some of which are related to the environment, and sometimes a combination of the two.

The lack of dopamine in the brain cells is the common element among these causes.

These are a few of the explanations:

  • Genetic mutations: In people under the age of 20, genetic mutations account for 65% of cases of Parkinson's disease.
  • Environmental factors, of which exposure to pesticides, fungicides, and herbicides is the most crucial.

Diagnosis of juvenile Parkinson's disease

The diagnosis of Parkinson's disease cannot be made with a specific exam or test.

The patient's history and clinical examination play a significant role in the diagnosis, but a test called a (DaTscan) may aid in the process by imaging the patient's brain's dopamine system.

What separates Parkinson's disease in children from Parkinson's disease in adults?

Juvenile Parkinson's disease has some features that set it apart from its classic counterpart, such as:

  • The patient's relatives may include more than one person who has the illness, so the patient has a family history of it.
  • It advances more gradually than typical Parkinson's disease does.
  • Compared to dopaminergic medications, it has more serious side effects.

Treatment of juvenile Parkinson's disease

In addition to treating the disease's symptoms, particularly the motor ones, the goal of Parkinson's disease treatment is to halt the disease's progression.

Parkinson's disease is typically treated with medication, but there are also newer approaches to treating the condition, including surgery.

1. Pharmacotherapy:

Any of the following medications can be administered to the patient to increase dopamine levels in the brain and alleviate symptoms:

  • Levodopa .
  • Catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitors.
  • Monoamine oxidase-B inhibitors.
  • inhibitors of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine's activity.

2. Surgical treatment:

Several surgical techniques, such as the following, may lessen symptoms:

Deep brain stimulation, which involves implanting electrodes deep inside brain cells, can help control scratching and lessen disease symptoms.

3. Modern Treatments:

There are modern and emerging methods for treating Parkinson's disease, but their effectiveness in treatment is not known, so they need more research and investigation. These are some of the treatments:

  • Cell-based therapy involves implanting dopamine-secreting embryonic neurons.
  • Immunotherapy involves either injecting the patient with a substance that prompts the immune system to produce anti—synuclein antibodies or directly injecting the patient with anti—synuclein antibodies.
  • By implanting a gene that produces the enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase, which produces the neurotransmitter gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA), doctors are able to improve the function of the basal nuclei and alleviate disease symptoms.

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