What are the types of leukemia in children?

Leukemia comes in a variety of forms, some of which are more prevalent in children. What kinds of leukaemia affect children? Learn about it with us in this article.

What are the types of leukemia in children?

Although there are different types of leukaemia, it is the most prevalent type of cancer in children. What kinds of leukaemia affect children? And what contributes to its infection? Is it treatable? In this article, we'll provide answers to these and other queries:

Types of leukemia in children

Children can develop leukaemia of the following types:

1. Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia-ALL

The majority of cases of this type occur in children, and it is one of the types that spreads and develops quickly.

This cancer originates in the bone marrow, where incomplete white blood cells are produced and are unable to fight infection. The following symptoms can be seen in children:

  • Shortness of breath. 
  • appetite loss and weight loss
  • Pale skin and extreme fatigue. 
  • Bruising and bleeding easily. 
  • High temperature and infection. 
  • lymph nodes that are swollen in the stomach, under the arm, between the thighs, or the neck.

2. Acute myeloid leukemia-AML

The second most frequent form of leukaemia in children is acute myeloid leukaemia, also known as acute non-lymphocytic leukaemia.

The child exhibits the following symptoms of this cancer, which develops in the bone marrow and causes a large number of abnormal blood cells to be produced:

  • Anemia. 
  • Shortness of breath.
  • Fatigue and extreme exhaustion. 
  • Bruising and bleeding easily. 
  • High fever, whether or not there is an infection.
  • the development of blue or purple lumps in the neck region, under the arm, between the thighs, or the stomach.

3. Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia

It is a rare variety of non-lymphocytic leukaemia that more frequently affects male children under the age of two years. When one kind of immature white blood cell multiplies in the bone marrow, it lowers the amount of red blood cells and platelets there and causes symptoms that are similar to those of acute myeloid leukaemia, such as:

  • Anemia. 
  • Infection. 
  • Bruising and bleeding easily.

4. Leukemia of mixed or hybrid ancestry

Combining the traits of acute lymphoblastic and acute myeloid leukaemia, it is a rare form of cancer.

Methods of diagnosing leukemia in children

Leukemia in children is diagnosed after referring to the child's medical history and conducting a clinical examination, and then a set of laboratory tests to determine the type and stage of leukemia and the type of treatment required. These examinations include the following:

  1. Blood test: to measure the number and shape of blood cells.
  2. Lumbar puncture: to check for the spread of leukemia in the cells.
  3. Biopsy: to confirm a diagnosis of leukemia.

Information about the treatment of leukemia in children

The treatment for different types of childhood leukaemia varies depending on the severity of the condition, but in general, the cure rate is high, children respond better to treatment than adults do, and their bodies can tolerate cancer treatments better. Some treatment options include:

1. Chemotherapy

In the majority of cases, chemotherapy is the first line of treatment; however, some disease symptoms, such as treating infections, such as by taking antibiotics, may need to be treated first before beginning cancer treatment in the child.

2. Other treatment methods

In some cancer cases or if chemotherapy is ineffective, other treatment options may be used, such as the following:

  • Radiation therapy. Radiation therapy.
  • targeted therapy. (Targeted therapy).
  • transplant of stem cells (stem cell transplant).

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