Endometriosis: the most important information about it

Endometriosis: What is it? What's the composition? And what kind of work do you do? What are the most likely issues that could affect them? Answer these questions in the following article.

Endometriosis: the most important information about it

The uterus is made up of two layers: an outer layer of smooth muscle called the myometrium and an inner layer called the endometrium. During the menstrual cycle, this inner layer undergoes many changes, but what is the purpose of this lining? What's the composition? What potential issues could they encounter?

Endometriosis: function

The physiological functions of the endometrium are represented in preparing the uterus for the implantation of the fertilized egg in it and in maintaining pregnancy if implantation of the egg or menstruation occurs in the event that implantation and pregnancy do not occur. As a result, the endometrium is essential to human reproduction and the survival of the human race.

Specifically, the lining changes just before ovulation as the uterine glands lengthen and the blood vessels multiply, increasing the lining's thickness and blood supply to prepare it to receive the fertilised egg and support the placenta.

If pregnancy does not occur, the body gets rid of the extra blood vessels and tissues through the menstrual cycle, which is also known as menstruation.

endometrial components

The endometrium consists of uterine glands surrounded by thin cellular connective tissue. In women of childbearing age, it has the following two layers:

1. Stratum basale

When the surface layer of the lining separates during menstruation in the absence of pregnancy, which represents two-thirds of the lining, what is left to regenerate the endometrium and get it ready for the next cycle is the deep supportive layer, which makes up one-third of the endometrium and is connected to the uterine muscle.

2. Stratum functionale

In the event that pregnancy does not occur as a result of hormonal factors, it represents the superficial two-thirds that proliferate, secrete, and then shed during menstruation. Estrogen is frequently the hormone responsible for the proliferation of this layer.

While there is no physical separation between the two lining layers, it is possible to tell them apart. because the basal layer's tissues have more cells than the functional layer's tissues.

The most prominent problems that may affect the lining of the uterus

There are a group of problems that may affect the lining of the uterus, and may thus affect fertility, we mention here some of them:

  • Problems with the thickness of the uterus 

One of the issues that may affect fertility and decrease the success of the pregnancy process is a lining that is either too thick or too thin. Research has shown that this may affect the implantation of embryos and increase the risk of miscarriage even if pregnancy occurs. The thickness of the lining is determined by looking at an ultrasound of the vagina.

  • Luteal phase defect

The progesterone hormone in the luteal phase, which is the period that follows ovulation and continues until menstruation, plays an important role in stimulating the lining of the uterus to secrete essential nutrients and substances that maintain the lining and create a healthy environment for the fetus. Sometimes the luteal phase may have flaws that prevent the production of enough progesterone, which can cause infertility.

  • Endometriosis

It is a common cause of infertility in which tissue that resembles the tissue that lines the uterus grows outside the uterine cavity.

  • Endometrial polyps

It is an overgrowth of the lining of the uterus, which is often benign and non-cancerous. Infertility may result from this issue, but it is not a guarantee.

  • Adenomyosis

The endometrium frequently grows into the uterine muscle in adenomyosis, which can result in painful and protracted periods.

  • Asherman's Syndrome

This syndrome occurs when adhesions occur in the uterus, resulting from the growth of scar tissue in the plates inside the uterus. This syndrome could interfere with pregnancy and result in repeated miscarriages.

  • Viral infections of the endometrium

Although it is still only a theory, viral infections, such as the herpes virus in the uterine lining, may cause infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss.

  • Endometrial cancer

Also known as uterine cancer, it is usually quickly diagnosed because it causes abnormal bleeding, and if treated early, fertility preservation is possible.

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