ICSI in detail to you

What exactly does ICSI entail? The categories that must submit are who? Important information about ICSI is detailed in this article.

ICSI in detail to you

Intracytoplasmic sperm injection is a technique used in the treatment of infertility problems to help couples conceive a child. Details about ICSI are provided in the lines that follow:

The ICSI process in detail

By injecting a single sperm into a mature egg, ICSI is used to improve in vitro fertilisation. The fertilised egg is then placed into the uterus or fallopian tube.

However, the ICSI process first goes through a number of steps, which are as follows:

1. Stimulate ovulation

Gonadotropins and follicle-stimulating hormone are given to the ovaries to encourage the development of several eggs in the beginning, and careful monitoring is carried out over a period of two weeks prior to egg collection.

After the first week, the doctor evaluates the blood's oestrogen content and uses ultrasound to assess the eggs' level of maturity in the follicles.

Based on the results of the blood test and ultrasound during the second week, the doctor might adjust the medication dosage. If the follicles are fully developed, human chorionic gonadotropin (Human chorionic gonadotropin) is injected to stimulate the eggs to mature.

2. Oocyte extraction

A laparoscopy or an ultrasound-guided needle is used to aspirate mature eggs from the vagina after they have been mature for 34–36 hours, and the eggs are then carefully placed in an incubator under controlled conditions in the embryology lab.

3. Sperm collection

Masturbation is used to collect sperm, and if this method is unsuccessful, a small incision is used to surgically remove the sperm from the testicle.

When there is a blockage that prevents sperm from ejaculating or if there is an issue that prevents sperm from growing and developing, surgery is frequently used.

Additionally, before beginning ICSI, experts advise genetic testing. To detect genetic problems for men who suffer from a lack or absence of sperm in the semen.

4. Sperm injection

The semen sample is prepared by centrifuging or rotating the sperm cells in a special medium. This procedure aims to distinguish between live and dead sperm.

The embryologist then uses a glass needle to pick up a single live sperm and inject it directly into an egg. The fertilised status of the eggs is then determined.

5. Moving the conceived egg

After incubation, eggs that have undergone 3-5 days of growth and development and have been successfully fertilised are chosen, and one or more are then inserted into the uterus using a thin flexible tube that is inserted through the cervix.

Reasons for resorting to ICSI

The fertilisation process is hampered by a number of factors, including those we have already mentioned in detail and for which ICSI is used, including:

  • Low sperm count, poor sperm motility, poor sperm quality, and the inability of sperm to pierce the outer layer of the egg are all examples of male infertility issues.
  • The egg's outer layer is thick, making it challenging to penetrate.
  • an obstruction in the male genital tract that hinders sperm release.
  • The lack of sperm in the ejaculate fluid is known as azoospermia.

Risks and problems of ICSI

ICSI can successfully fertilise between 50 and 80 percent of eggs, but it can also have some issues. These include:

  • Damage to some eggs.
  • Even after the sperm has been injected into the egg, the egg does not develop and grow into an embryo.
  • The fetus has stopped growing. 
  • Ovarian stimulating hormone use causes the syndrome of ovarian hyperstimulation.
  • risks associated with multiple pregnancies, which vary depending on how many embryos are implanted in the uterus.
  • high probability of birth defects in kids.

Effect of ICSI on child development

After we mentioned information about the ICSI process in detail, we must mention its effect on the health of the child. A higher risk of some birth defects was discovered when compared to a typical pregnancy, including:

  • Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome.
  • Angelman syndrome.
  • Hypospadias.
  • Abnormalities of the sex chromosomes.

When it affects fewer than 1% of children and some of the issues that lead to infertility may run in families, for instance, male children born via ICSI may experience the same issues with infertility as their fathers.

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